Would it surprise you to learn that, like animals, trees communicate with each other and pass on their wealth to the next generation?
UBC Professor Simard explains how trees are much more complex than most of us ever imagined. Although Charles Darwin thought that trees are competing for survival of the fittest, Simard shows just how wrong he was. In fact, the opposite is true: trees survive through their co-operation and support, passing around necessary nutrition “depending on who needs it”.
Nitrogen (氮) and carbon are shared through miles of underground fungi (真菌)
networks, making sure that all trees in the forest ecological system give and receive just the right amount to keep them all healthy. This hidden system works in a very similar way to the networks of neurons (神经元) in our brains, and when one tree is destroyed, it affects all.
Simard talks about “mother trees”, usually the largest and oldest plants on which all other trees depend. She explains how dying trees pass on the wealth to the next generation, transporting important minerals to young trees so they may continue to grow. When humans cut down “mother trees” with no awareness of these highly complex “tree societies” or the networks on which they feed, we are reducing the chances of survival for the entire forest.
“We didn’t take any notice of it” Simard says sadly. “Dying trees move nutrition into the young trees before dying, but we never give them chance.” If we could put across the message to the forestry industry, we could make a huge difference towards our environmental protection efforts for the future.
1.The underlined sentence “the opposite is true” in Paragraph 2 probably means that trees .
A. compete for survival
B. protect their own wealth
C. depend on each other
D. provide support for dying trees
2.”Mother trees” are extremely important because they .
A. look the largest in size in the forest
B. pass on nutrition to young trees
C. seem more likely to be cut down by humans
D. know more about the complex “tree societies”
3.The underlined word “it” in the last paragraph refers to .
A. how “tree societies” work
B. how trees grow old
C. how forestry industry develops
D. how young trees survive
4.What would be the best title for the passage?
A. Old Trees Communicate Like Humans
B. Young Trees Are In Need Of Protection
C. Trees Are More Awesome Than You Think
D. Trees Contribute To Our Society
One evening I was resting in a cafe. I a pair of newly bought white leather shoes, which were rather expensive. Then a boy came to me.
He was in a(n) shirt, looking pale and about eleven. No sooner had I begun to speak than he opened the i n his hand and took out the tools of shoe-polishing. He down, took off my leather shoes, and began to shine them.
He was busy doing his work heavy rain began to pour down. People rushed to the café for from the rain. More and more people crowded and gradually separated the boy from me.
Hours passed, and it turned . I had no shoes on my feet and where the boy had been. I thought he would not my shoes, and I would have to go home on my bare feet.
When it was near midnight the ended, and there were fewer and fewer people in the café. The café was to be . I had to move to the door, head . just as I went to the gate, I found that a boy of about eleven, looking very familiar, was sleeping at the with his head leaning against a box and his upper body being . he held a package made of his shirt tightly in his arms.
I shook him slightly and woke him up. He up and rubbed his eyes for a while before he recognized me. Then he opened the package , gave me my leather shoes, and apologized to me shyly. I him and wrapped him with his unfit shirt, which had wrapped my leather shoes. On my way home, the of the boy stayed in my mind.
1.A. took B. wore C. mended D. owned
2.A. old B. unfit C . small D. dirty
3.A. bag B. package C. box D. suitcase
4.A. seated B. bent C. put D. looked
5.A. when B. after C. because D. since
6.A. protection B. rest C. hide D. preparation
7.A. out B. away C. in D. off
8.A. dark B. light C. dim D. bright
9.A. thought B. wondered C. guessed D. imagined
10.A. shine B. keep C. return D. carry
11.A. rain B. coffee C. time D. work
12.A. opened B. locked C. stopped D. closed
13.A. lowered B. dropped C. raised D. held
14.A. shortly B. surprisedly C. sadly D. immediately
15.A. table B. door C. bed D. cafe
16.A. wet B. bare C. pale D. cold
17.A. stayed B. say C. jumped D. got
18.A. finally B. suddenly C. unfriendly D. hurriedly
19.A. recognized B. forgave C. paid D. inspired
20.A. feature B. shirt C. image D. form
1.动词。根据He down, took off my leather shoes, and began to shine them. 可知这里意思是我穿着一双新买的白色鞋。Took拿；wore穿着；mended修理；owned拥有，故选B。
2.I him and wrapped him with his unfit shirt, 可知这里填unfit。Old旧的；unfit不适宜的；small小的；dirty脏的，故选B。
3.名词。根据with his head leaning against a box可知这里填box。Bag包；package包裹；box盒；suitcase手提箱，故选C。
4.动词。根据He down, took off my leather shoes, and began to shine them. 可知这里意思是他弯下腰。Seated坐下；bent弯曲；put放；looked看，故选B。
5.连词。根据He was busy doing his work heavy rain began to pour down.可知这里想说他忙于他的工作，就在那时，下起了大雨。when就在那时；after在……以后；because因为；since自从，故选A。
6.名词。根据People rushed to the café for from the rain.可知这里意思是人们为了躲雨涌进了咖啡店。Protection保护；rest休息；hide隐藏；preparation准备，故选A。
7.短语。根据More and more people crowded and gradually separated the boy from me.
8.形容词。根据When it was near midnight the ended, and there were fewer and fewer people in the café.可知这里意思是天变黑了。Dark黑的；light轻的；dim昏暗的；bright明亮的。故选A。
9.动词。根据I had no shoes on my feet and where the boy had been.可知这里意思是我想知道这个男孩在哪里。Thought认为；wondered想知道；guessed猜测；imagined想象，故选B。
10.动词。根据I thought he would not my shoes, and I would have to go home on my bare feet.可知这里想说我认为他不会归还我的鞋了。Shine擦皮鞋；keep保持；return归还；carry携带，故选C。
11.名词。根据He was busy doing his work heavy rain began to pour down.可知这里意思是接近午夜，雨停了。Rain雨；coffee咖啡；time时间；work工作 ，故选A。
12.形容词。根据When it was near midnight the ended, and there were fewer and fewer people in the café. The café was to be .可知这里意思是咖啡店要关门了。Opened打开；locked锁上；stopped停止；closed关闭，故选D。
13.动词。根据I had to move to the door, head . just as I went to the gate, I found that a boy of about eleven, looking very familiar,可知这里意思是我低着头。Lowered低着；dropped落下；raised提起；held举起，故选A。
14.副词。根据I found that a boy of about eleven, looking very familiar, was sleeping at the 55 with his head leaning against a box and his upper body being . he held a package made of his shirt tightly in his arms. 可知我本以为找不到小男孩了，却在门口看到了他，所以我很吃惊。Shortly马上；surprisedly惊奇地；sadly悲哀地；immediately立即，故选B。
15.名词。根据was sleeping at the with his head leaning against a box可知他在门口睡着了。Table桌子；door门；bed床；cafe咖啡，故选B。
16.形容词。根据he held a package made of his shirt tightly in his arms. 可知他的上身赤裸着。Wet湿的；bare赤裸的；pale苍白的；cold冷的，故选B。
17.动词。根据He up and rubbed his eyes for a while before he recognized me.可知这里意思是他跳起来。Stayed停留；say说；jumped跳；got得到，故选C。
18.副词。根据Then he opened the package , gave me my leather shoes, and apologized to me shyly.可知这里意思是他匆忙打开了小包裹。Finally最后；suddenly突然；unfriendly有敌意地；hurriedly匆忙地。故选D。
19.动词。根据I him and wrapped him with his unfit shirt, which had wrapped my leather shoes.可知我付给他钱。Recognized认出；forgave原谅；paid付款；inspired鼓舞，故选C。
20.名词。根据On my way home, the of the boy stayed in my mind.可知这里意思是男孩的形象在我脑海中。Feature特征；shirt衬衣；image形象；form形状，故选C。